Menstrual cycle

Understanding the Menstrual Cycle: A Basic Overview and Its Relation to Fertility


Welcome to a fascinating journey through the world of the menstrual cycle – an important process in every woman’s life which plays a significant role in female health and fertility. This article will provide a clear, comprehensive overview of the Menstruation cycle, its various phases, and how they impact fertility.

What is the Menstrual Cycle?

The Menstruation cycle is a remarkable, natural process happening in women of reproductive age, naturally every 28 days, although it can range from 21 to 35 days. This cyclical process prepares the body for potential pregnancy, with hormones regulating each stage.

Phases of the Menstrual Cycle

The menstrual cycle can be broken down into four primary phases: the menstrual phase, follicular phase, ovulation phase, and luteal phase.

  1. Menstrual Phase: This phase begins on the first day of your period when the lining of the uterus sheds through the vagina.
  2. Follicular Phase: This phase starts on the first day of your period too, but continues until ovulation. The pituitary gland releases follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), which stimulates the ovaries to produce around five to 20 follicles.
  3. Ovulation Phase: Typically around the 14th day of the cycle, a surge in luteinising hormone causes the dominant follicle to release an egg – this is ovulation.
  4. Luteal Phase: Post ovulation, the ruptured follicle closes and forms a corpus luteum, which produces progesterone. If the egg isn’t fertilised, the corpus luteum disintegrates, leading to the start of the next menstrual phase.

Menstrual Cycle and Fertility

Understanding the menstrual cycle can be vital when trying to become pregnant. The ovulation phase is crucial – this is when the egg is released, marking the ‘fertile window’ in a woman’s cycle. Signs of ovulation can include a change in cervical mucus, a slight increase in basal body temperature, and mild pelvic pain. Using ovulation predictor kits or tracking these changes can help determine the best time for conception.

Common Menstrual Irregularities and Their Impact on Fertility

It’s important to be aware of common menstrual irregularities, as they can affect fertility. These include:

  • Amenorrhea: The absence of menses.
  • Dysmenorrhea: Painful periods.
  • Irregular cycles: Cycles that vary significantly in length.

If you experience any of these, it’s advised to consult a doctor to ensure optimal reproductive health.

When to Consult a Healthcare Provider

If you notice consistent irregularities in your period cycle, severe pain, or if you’ve been trying to become pregnant for a year without success (or six months if you’re over 35), it’s time to seek medical advice. Having regular check ups with your women’s health doctor is also a key part of keeping your reproductive system healthy.


Understanding your menstrual process is a powerful tool in managing your health and fertility. Don’t hesitate to seek professional advice for any concerns – your body, your health, and your future family deserve the best care.

Remember, it’s important to keep the conversation around menstrual health open and ongoing – the more we understand, the better we can care for ourselves and support others. At Sugabi Clinic, we’re here to help you navigate your journey through menstrual health


  1. Planned Parenthood Federation of America. Menstruation. New York, NY: Planned Parenthood; 2023 [cited 2023 May 12]. Available from:
  2. Mayo Clinic. Menstrual cycle: What’s normal, what’s not. Rochester, MN: Mayo Clinic; 2023 [cited 2023 May 12]. Available from:
  3. Office on Women’s Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Your menstrual cycle. Washington, DC: OWH, HHS; 2023 [cited 2023 May 12]. Available from:
  4. Cleveland Clinic. Understanding the Female Menstrual Cycle. Cleveland, OH: Cleveland Clinic; 2023 [cited 2023 May 12]. Available from:

Comments are closed.