Pap smear test @ Sugabi Clinic Ragama

Understanding Pap Smear: Your Cervical Cancer Shield


Cervical cancer screening, also known as a Pap smear, plays a crucial role in preventing cervical cancer. Regular screenings can detect abnormal cells in the cervix before they develop into cancer, preventing up to 75% of cervical cancers. This article aims to help you understand the importance of Pap smears, the procedure, and what to expect during the screening process.

Pap Smear Procedure: A Simple and Essential Test

A Pap smear is a straightforward and relatively painless procedure that involves collecting a small sample of cells from the cervix. The patient lies down on an examination table with their feet supported in stirrups. A doctor gently inserts a speculum into the vagina to access the cervix. A brush or spatula is then used to collect cells, which are sent to a laboratory for analysis. Some women may feel anxious or embarrassed about the process. Still, open communication with your doctor can help alleviate any concerns or questions.

Eligibility and Screening Frequency: Tailoring to Individual Needs

The recommended age range and frequency for cervical cancer screening vary by country. In Sri Lanka, women aged 35 and 45 are invited for screening. Women with specific risk factors, such as a family history of cervical cancer or a weakened immune system, may need frequent screenings. It’s essential to discuss your individual risk factors and screening needs with your healthcare provider.

Interpreting Pap Smear Results: What They Mean for You

Pap smear results are typically categorised as normal (negative), inconclusive, or abnormal (positive). Inconclusive results may require a repeat test, while abnormal results, such as a colposcopy or biopsy, usually lead to further investigation. If your test is normal, your doctor will advise you to continue regular screening according to the recommended schedule.

HPV and the HPV Vaccine: Key Players in Cervical Cancer Prevention.

Most cases of cervical cancer are caused by certain high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV). The HPV vaccine can significantly reduce the risk of cervical cancer by protecting against the most common cancer-causing types of HPV. The National Immunisation Programme in Sri Lanka offers the vaccine to girls aged 12 to 13.

Limitations of Pap Smears: The Importance of Regular Screening

While Pap smears are a valuable tool in cervical cancer prevention, they have some limitations. False negatives and false positives can occur, emphasising the importance of regular screenings to minimise these risks. Additionally, a Pap smear is not a test for other types of cancer, such as ovarian or endometrial cancer. Women with specific risk factors for these cancers may need additional tests as part of their healthcare plan.

Understanding Abnormal Pap Test Results and Next Steps

If you receive an abnormal Pap test result, it’s essential to understand what this means and the appropriate next steps. There are different types of abnormal results, each with specific implications. Your doctor will guide you through the additional tests or procedures that may be required, such as a colposcopy or biopsy. They will also discuss management and treatment options if necessary. Remember, an abnormal result does not always indicate cancer; it simply means that further investigation is needed to determine the cause of the abnormal cells.

Cervical Screening Benefits and Risks: Making an Informed Decision

Regular cervical screening has numerous benefits, including early detection of abnormal cells, which can help prevent cervical cancer. However, there are potential risks and side effects, such as discomfort, bleeding, or infection. In rare cases, false negatives and false positives can occur, so maintaining a regular screening schedule is important. It’s essential to balance the benefits and risks when making an informed decision about your cervical screening.


Regular Pap smear screenings are an essential aspect of preventive healthcare for women. By detecting abnormal cervical cells early, treatment can be provided before they develop into cancer, significantly reducing the incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer. We encourage all women to be proactive in their healthcare, attend regular screenings, and discuss any concerns with their healthcare providers. By working together, we can make a real difference in the fight against cervical cancer.


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